New Vaccine May Reduce HIV Virus To ‘Minor Chronic Infection’‎

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) could be reduced to a “minor chronic infection” akin to herpes, Spanish scientists developing a new vaccine have claimed.

The success of this vaccine, CSIC's patent, is based on the capability of human's immune system to learn how to react over time against virus particles and infected cells. “MVA‐B vaccine has proven to be as powerful as any other vaccine currently being studied, or even more,” says Mariano Esteban, head researcher. Photo: CSIC

Could HIV one day be treated as nothing more than a ‘minor chronic infection?’ That’s what researchers at the National Biotech Center in Madrid, Spain are hoping to eventually achieve with MVA-B, their early-stage HIV vaccine.

The researchers found that 22 of 24 healthy people (92 per cent) developed an immune response to HIV after being given their MVA-B vaccine. Professor Mariano Esteban, head researcher on the project at the National Biotech Centre in Madrid, said of the jab: “It is like showing a picture of the HIV so that it is able to recognise it if it sees it again in the future.”

The injection contains four HIV genes which stimulate T and B lymphocytes, which are types of white blood cells. Prof Esteban explained: “Our body is full of lymphocytes, each of them programmed to fight against a different pathogen.

This Human Immunodeficiency Virus model summarizes the results from more then 100 latest scientific publications in the fields of virology, X-ray analysis and NMR spectroscopy. The depicted spatial configurations of 17 different viral and cellular proteins found in HIV particle are in strict accordance with known 3D-structures. Photo: Ivan Konstantinov, Yury Stefanov, Aleksander Kovalevsky, Yegor Voronin/Visual Science Company

He continued: “Training is needed when it involves a pathogen, like the HIV one, which cannot be naturally defeated”. B cells produce antibodies which attack viruses before they infect cells, while T cells detect and destroy infected cells.

The study showed that almost three-quarters of participants had developed HIV-specific antibodies 11 months after vaccination.Over a third developed one type of T cell that fights HIV, called CD4+, while over two-thirds developed another, called CD8+.

Overall, 92 per cent developed some sort of immune response. However, that is not the same thing as being protected from HIV infection: the response could be inadequate to provide protection.

However, Prof Esteban acknowledged the vaccine was at an early stage, describing it as “promising”. The next step is to test it in people with HIV to see if it works as a “therapeutic” – reducing the viral count.

Neon artworks related to proteins and medical science in the windows of the Gibbs Building of the Wellcome Trust, Euston Road. Photo: Paul Mison/Flickr

The researcher was optimistic, saying: “MVA-B vaccine has proven to be as powerful as any other vaccine currently being studied, or even more.”

“If this genetic cocktail passes Phase II and Phase III future clinic trials, and makes it into production, in the future HIV could be compared to herpes virus nowadays,” the researcher added.

By that he meant HIV could become a “minor chronic infection” that only resulted in disease when the immune system was otherwise compromised.

Other vaccines are in development. One, called the HIV-v vaccine, developed by British researchers, resulted in a 90 per cent reduction in viral count in HIV-infected people. Most trials so far have been small scale.

There have also been many false dawns with prospective HIV vaccines. Jason Warriner, clinical director for the Terrence Higgins Trust, described the Spanish project as “a step in the right direction”.

In other HIV news, a group of European economists says adult male circumcision is not the most cost-effective solution for stopping the disease and resources should be directed towards other options like finding an HIV vaccine, infant male circumcision, removing the risk of infection from blood transfusions, and stopping mother-to-child transmission of the virus.

Bjorn Lomborg, director of the Copenhagen Consensus Center, told a group meeting at Georgetown University, “We need to spend money on things we know work,” and added, “Making blood transfusions safe costs almost nothing, but we’re not doing it,”  according to the USA Today.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus, member of the lentivirus genus. HIV infects and destroys cells of the human immune system (CD4+ T-lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells). The decrease of CD4+ T-lymphocytes level causes the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). There are two major species of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2, which is less common.   [via The Huff Post and USA Today]

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